For all the jazz around foam-rolling these days it may be surprising to know that the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood and there is a paucity of high-quality and well-designed studies available.
Some of the proposed mechanisms of effect may include:
1. Reflex neural inhibition
2. Increased stretch tolerance
3. Mediating pain-modulatory systems
What we do know is that foam-rolling appears to be effective for producing short-term gains in flexibility without reducing performance. And while the benefits to muscle function have not yet been established, there does seem to be a demonstrable reduction in post-exercise muscle soreness as a result of post-exercise rolling.
So, from the research that we do have, it’s safe to say that foam-rolling is perhaps not the miracle saviour for poor exercises choices or not moving enough that we once thought it was.
1. A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Foam Rolling on Performance and Recovery. Wiewelhove, et al. 2019
2. The Science and Physiology of Flexibility and Stretching : Implications and Applications in Sport Performance and Health. Behm, 2018.
Foam rolling is an extremely popular form of self-massage, with a huge number of athletes from almost all sports using it in one way or another as a part of their preparation for either training or competition.
Here at Central Performance, we get a great number of new clients asking about foam rolling, and whether it will be helpful to them not only as a part of their training, but in their everyday injury maintenance. We encourage our clients to utilise the foam rollers in their gym or homes every day, as they are a great way to not only help prepare for exercise, but also recover from it!
Foam rolling is a fantastic tool to use as a part of rehabilitation because they enable you to release tight areas of the body on a daily basis, leading to improved movement and performance. These tissues can be tight due to injury from regular training, or even sustained postures throughout everyday activities e.g. desk-based workers often experience tight hip flexors from having their hips in a constantly flexed position at their desk all day.
Foam rolling is also extremely useful when recovering from exercise. Evidence shows that Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness (DOMS) is significantly reduced when performed immediately following exercise, and then both 24 and 48 hours on muscle groups that were the main focus of the exercise session. Enhanced recovery leads to a greater level of ability and performance, hence why elite athletes everywhere are using it!
1. Quads: rolling is very helpful for reducing tightness is your thigh. Runners find this especially useful, and it can help prevent or manage patellofemoral (kneecap or runners knee pain) and quads strains. To do it, lie on your front with a foam roller under one leg and slowly roll up and down the length of your quad.
2. Calf: excellent for runners with tight calves, place a foam roller under one calf and lift off the floor with your hands, rolling up and down the length of your calf.
3. Lateral (outer) thigh: great for reducing soreness on the outside of the hips or knees, lie on your side with a foam roller under the outside of your leg and roll up and down the length of your thigh.
So if you are feeling a bit tight and sore with running, training at the gym, netball or whatever, give these a try and let us know if you need any help!
For more tips on training, mobility, strength and rehab make sure to follow us on Instagram (@centralperformance, #centralperformance), Facebook (@centralphysioandperformancefitness), or Twitter (@centralphysio). And keep an eye out over the coming weeks for more great recovery tips!
In our post on compression garments and recovery, we brought up the potential role of the placebo effect which sparked some questions and commentary.
Adding a little more to the placebo/recovery discussion, in a new study from Wilson, et al. 2019 compared the effects of cold water immersion (CWI), whole body cryotherapy (WBC) or a placebo (PL) intervention on recovery markers after a resistance training session.
Although a single training session does not reflect the everyday workload demands placed upon competitive athletes, there was substantial enough effect on the recovery markers used following the single training session to directly compare the three interventions.
What did they do?
24 males with a minimum training age of 12 months were matched into CWI (10mins at 10 degrees Celcius), WBC ( 3 and 4 mins at – 85 degrees Celcius) or PL group and performed a high volume lower body resistance training session at 80% of predicted 1RM.
Recovery markers were assessed before and after at 24, 48, and up to 72 hours post-exercise including ”Perceptions of soreness and training stress, markers of muscle function, inflammation and efflux of intracellular proteins.”
The single training session did cause the expected perceptual soreness and muscle function disturbance with WBC managing to attenuate soreness at 24hrs and positively influencing peak force at 48 hrs post, greater than in CWI pr PL group. This has been a consistent finding in the literature to date: Stanley et al. 2012; Leeder et al. 2011; Versey et al. 2013; andRoberts et al. 2014.
It should be noted however that the WBC temperatures used in the study (- 85 degrees Celcius) were higher than those typically suggested (-110 to 140 degrees Celcius) possibly influencing results.
Aside from this small difference, it appears that ”many of the remaining outcomes were trivial, unclear or favoured the PL condition.”
Readers should be aware that we are still not aware of the chronic effects of cold water therapies and that some research has suggested it can negatively interfere with vascular and muscular adaptations from resistance and endurance training while CWI has shown some small benefits for recovery from endurance protocols.
Danny James is the Head of Personal Training and Strength and Conditioning services at Central Physio and Performance Fitness, located in Surry Hills in the Sydney CBD area. firstname.lastname@example.org
Following our introduction to recovery, we’re going to continue the series looking at some of the research around many popular recovery methods and offer some practical
First up on the list is sleep – one of the most important influences on recovery, one of the simplest to address and yet is often the most overlooked of all performance variables.
Sleep is a needed resource for psychological and physiological wellbeing, during which time many of the bodies more potent repair and recovery processes are kicked into overdrive. It is generally accepted that the primary purpose of sleep is restoration – To recover from previous wake-period operations and/or prepare for functioning in the subsequent wakefulness period.
An individual’s recent sleep history (consisting of both duration and quality) can have a dramatic influence on daytime functioning. Research has firmly established that sleeping less than 6 hours per night for four or more consecutive nights can:
1. Impair cognitive performance and mood
2. Heighten risk of illness and injury
3. Disturb metabolic health, appetite regulation and immune function
There are many reasons why sleep habits may be negatively affected, some of which include:
Stress, nervousness, thinking, worrying, planning.
Unsuitable diet/nutrient deficiency
Poor sleep habits and environment (eg noise, lighting, temperature, late television watching, late caffeine use, late activity).
In addition to the above, Erlacher et al. 2011 asked 632 german athletes from various sports about their sleep habits leading up to important events or competitions, with the results showing that:
Factors identified as reasons for poor sleep included:
The value of quality sleep is clear and it is easy to see how it can be impacted by many of the above variables which we all face from time to time. What isn’t so easy though, is how best to mitigate these factors to ensure that you get a good night sleep and subsequently prevent the associated performance decline from sleep loss.
Suggestions for improving sleep:
1. Develop a ‘POWER-OFF POLICY’ before bed
Switch off tv, computers, tablets, and smartphones 1-2 hours before sleep time. These will disturb the production of hormones that prepare you for sleep.
2. Develop a ‘Wind down’ routine before bed
Slow down and de-stress as much as possible before bed and try to establish consistent sleep and wake times. A shower before bedtime has been shown to improve sleep onset latency. Research has also shown that almost half of all insomnia cases are linked to stress or emotional upset. Avenues to reduce stress are highly individual and situation dependent, so finding ways to reduce stress are paramount to improving sleep, and long-term health and wellness. Some proven strategies include:
Habits and Environment
3. A quiet sleep space is a key
If noise can’t be avoided try using headphones with instrumental music at a low volume, or keep a fan on for an acutely distracting ‘white noise.’
4. Temperature, darkness, and clothing
Approximately 18 degrees Celsius is a cool room temperature that has been shown to help comfortable sleep occurrence. Thick bedding and clothing must also be avoided if it causes overheating. A dark environment with limited lighting can also help the body recognise that it’s night time and time to begin the process of preparing for sleep.
5. Coffee and heavy meals
Avoid caffeine, big meals and heavy amounts of liquid before bed.
6. Take Naps Where You Can & Need To
Naps can be beneficial to catch up on lost sleep, however, avoid them later into the afternoon if it might impact your regular sleep time. Blanchfield et al. 2018 recently showed that a short afternoon nap improves endurance performance in runners that obtain less than 7 hrs of nighttime sleep. Napping might be an important strategy to optimise endurance exercise in other athletic and occupational scenarios when sleep is compromised (eg long-haul, intensified training etc).
Hamstring injuries can be tricky, and proper treatment is a definite must before testing them out again on the sporting field. Hamstring injuries are among the most common we see here in the clinic, and we believe in using a holistic treatment approach encompassing several areas to get those dodgy hamstrings healthy again!
Strength is a crucial part of keeping hamstrings healthy, and there are a number of exercises we like to use to increase hamstring strength. We use progressive overload in both hip and knee dominant exercises to ensure maximal strength levels are achieved. Some of these exercises include single leg bridges, Nordic curls, prone hamstring curls, single leg deadlifts and hamstring slider curls. Remember to mix up your exercises and give yourself plenty of rest between sessions.
Obviously, flexibility is a massive part of healthy hamstrings, however many people don’t release that flexibility of muscles other than the hamstrings also plays an important part of keeping those hamstrings healthy. Therefore it is important that flexibility components of hamstring rehab programs focus on glute, hip flexor, quadriceps and calf range of motion as well as the hamstrings themselves. Poor range or severe tightness in these muscles are an injury risk factor, so this should be a priority for anyone returning to sport from a hamstring injury.
Running can be a difficult part of hamstring rehab, as in many cases it was the mechanism of the injury! It is however an extremely useful tool in hamstring rehabilitation, and once you’re over the initial hesitancy is the trick to getting those hamstrings firing again. Changing up the style of running training you do is key. We use a mix of progressive speed exposures, max speed exposures, change of direction and deceleration training, and again suggest varying the type and intensity of running training you complete.
”Every training element has a point of diminishing returns. Our job (the coach’s job) is to find it shift emphasis and cycle back at the optimal point in time.” ~ Derek Hansen
For many people who play winter sports like football, soccer, AFL, netball and hockey, pre-season training is just around the corner or may have even started already. Completing a whole pre-season program is not only vital for fitness levels and skill practice, it can be a massive component of preventing injuries throughout the season!
A 2016 study found that elite AFL players who completed <50% of their pre season training were 2x more likely to sustain an in- season injury than those who completed >85%. This isn’t just relevant for AFL though; it’s relevant for all sports at any level.
This is a telling stat, and one that needs to be at the front of all athletes’ minds whilst participating in pre-season training. Even if you’re injured, there is something you can do. Pre-season isn’t just about “getting fit again”, it can be used for rehabbing those niggly injuries still hanging around from last season. The is also lots of research showing that increasing strength can help prevent many common sports injuries including hamstring and adductor (groin) muscle tears, rotator cuff and other shoulder injuries, shin splints and other sprains and strains.
Research from the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) also shows that avoiding rapid spikes in training load helps you avoid injury not only in pre-season, but during the season as well. Going straight in to in-season training and competition loads causes a huge spike in strain through your body and this dramatically increases your risk of injury during the season.
So make the most of your pre-season training. Get yourself to those sessions, and work on everything you can! Remember, the work you do now will pay off come start of season if you make the effort!
Not sure what to do for your pre-season training? Let one of our Strength & Conditioning coaches or Exercise Physiologists get you on the right program to boost your performance and reduce your risk of injury
Reference: Murray et.al 2016 Individual and combined effects of acute and chronic running loads on injury risk in elite Australian footballers
If you’re looking for a great personal trainer in Surry Hills then Central Performance has you covered. Many people know us as a physio or rehab-oriented facility, however you should know that a large part of what we do every day is work with healthy individuals, who are completely free from injury, using tailored exercise programs to improve peoples overall health and sports performance.
Here are some key ingredients that set our exercise services apart;
• it’s all about you. Every exercise program we deliver is specific just for that client and is based on their individual goals, wants, needs, current fitness level and preferences
• exceptional trainers who really care about you. We really make the time and effort to get to know you, your likes and dislikes, what you want to achieve and what might be holding you back. We make sure your time with us is a real highlight of your day, not just just another exercise session.
• a warm and friendly environment where you feel you really belong, amongst a group of people who always want the best for you.
• a dedicated team working hand-in-hand around you to give you everything you need for success. Because our team of trainers and coaches work right alongside our phyiso’s, exercise physiologists and massage therapists, if you do have any injury concerns then help and advice is always on hand.
We work with people at every level of fitness and sports performance, from gym newbies to athletes competing at national and international levels. Whether your goal is weight loss, sports performance, getting your body back to the way you like it, or maybe you just feel sluggish and you know you’ve got to get moving again, we can tailor an exercise program just right for you. Spending too long at the desk and putting on some kilos, or maybe your doctor says you need to get your weight or blood pressure under control with regular exercise? We can help.