Posts Tagged running

Exercise Physiology for running performance

Running is an extremely popular form of exercise with almost no cost and fantastic physical and mental benefits. I’m sure we’ve all met runners who are almost obsessive about their running and are like a bear with a sore head when they can’t run. We see lots of runners at Central Performance, from office workers who run a couple of times a week for the health benefits to our elite running group coached by physio and track coach Ben Liddy.

One thing most of our runners have in common is that they would like to run a little better. Whether that’s reducing aches and pains they feel when running, improving their City2Surf time or lowering their 1,500m PB everyone wants to improve somehow. An often-overlooked way to improve running performance is to include some weight training into your training. The classic opinion was the weight training made you heavy and slow however there is a lot of good research that shows that weight training can significantly improve endurance, running performance and running economy.

It used to be thought that to improve performance in endurance sports like running that it was more beneficial to use a light weight for lots of repetitions when performing weight training. The theory was that it better replicated how the muscle worked when running and therefore it would lead to greater improvements in running performance. We now know that low repetition, heavy weight training and plyometric training is better for improving running performance and economy. This might seem counter intuitive but there are some good reasons for why that is the case.

First of all, heavy weight training and plyometric training both improve what is called Rate of Force Development (RFD). RFD means how quickly a muscle can produce force, the higher the RFD the quicker a muscle is able to produce force. A high RFD is important when running because ground contact time with each stride is so short. If you are able to increase the RFD of the muscles in the legs then you are able to decrease your ground contact time and increase your running cadence. Increasing your running cadence improves your running economy, making you a more efficient runner.

Secondly, a stronger muscle means that each stride requires relatively less effort from the muscles in your leg. For example, the soleus muscle in the calf has to deal with between 6-8 times body weight with each stride. That is an awful lot of force to be dealing with for a sustained period of time. A strong soleus, strengthened with the help of weight training, will be better able to handle 6-8 times body weight for a 800m race, 5km fun run or full marathon.

Thirdly, heavy weight training and plyometric training help to strengthen and stiffen tendons. A stronger, stiffer tendon is better able to transmit the force produce by the muscles into the movement of bones required for running. Better force transmission by the tendons again improves running economy and efficiency. It also has the added benefit of helping to guard against the development of tendinopathies such as Achilles or hamstring tendinopathy. We see many runners with these injuries and heavy weight training is the starting point for their rehabilitation.

As you can see there are some very good reasons for including heavy weight training and plyometric training to improve your running performance. As simple as two sessions of weight and plyometric training per week can lead to significant improvements in running performance. Below is an example of a simple weight and plyometric training session for runners.


Goblet squat:

The goblet squat is a fantastic way to introduce the squat movement into your training program and it is the first version of the squat we use with our clients. The squat is one of the key movements in weight training programs we develop for runners as it is fantastic for developing quad strength. This is important as the quads take the second most load during running after the calf muscles.


Single leg deadlift:

Another key movement in the weight training programs for our runners, the single leg deadlift is great for developing strength in the hamstrings and muscles of the lateral hip, particularly the glute medius. The glute medius plays an important role in maintain lateral stability of the hip, helping to prevent hip drop and subsequent valgus collapse of the knee when your foot strikes the ground. We also aim to have a mix of double leg and single leg exercises in our programs and the single leg deadlift is one of our favourite single leg exercises.

Bent knee calf raises:

An often overlooked muscle group when weight training, the calf muscles have the highest demand on them of any muscle group when running. As stated earlier, the calf muscles must handle between 6-8 times body weight with each stride. Therefore, it is important to strengthen the muscles of the calf. The bent knee calf raise helps to prioritise loading on the soleus muscle and better replicates the ankle position during running.

Hurdle hops:

Hurdle hops are one of our first plyometric progressions we introduce into our runners programs. It is a great exercise to help develop power on one leg and get our clients used to the landing forces associated with plyometric exercises. With a hurdle hop we emphasise ‘sticking’ the landing which requires our clients to be able to control the landing forces.

, , , , , ,

No Comments

Exercise for Achilles Tendinopathy

Running season is well and truly underway! With so many fun-runs, half marathons and marathons going on at the moment, we’re seeing a lot of clients come into the clinic with niggling injuries holding them back, be it in training, competing or just participating! The most common of these injuries is an Achilles tendinopathy (previously known as Achilles tendinitis), which occurs when the Achilles tendon is unable to adapt to an increase of strain being placed on it, leading to small amounts of damage within the tendon fibres themselves. This increase in strain commonly comes about in runners who have suddenly increased the distance they’re running, the amount of hill running they’re completing or the intensity they’re running at!

So, what can you do to help heal an Achilles tendinopathy? Here at Central Performance we love taking an active approach, believing that combining specific exercises with appropriate Physiotherapy techniques is the best treatment possible.

So, what exercises should you be doing? A loaded calf raise program is your best chance at getting back on track. It’s important to remember that initially, these exercises will likely increase your pain, but don’t worry, that soon settles!

Your initial loaded calf raise program should include:

  1. Straight knee heel lowers: Using a wall for support, raise up onto your toes using your good leg, taking 3 seconds. Transfer your weight to your bad leg, then lower your heels to the floor, taking 4 seconds. When this starts to become easy, switch to single leg straight knee heel lowers.
  2. Bent knee heel lowers: Using a wall for support, raise up onto your toes using your good leg, taking 3 seconds. Transfer your weight to your bad leg, and keeping your knee bent, lower your heels to the floor, taking 4 seconds. Again, when this starts to become easy, switch to single leg bent knee heel lowers.

For all these exercises, aim for 3 sets of 15 reps on alternating days. As their difficulty decreases, weight can be added to each of them to further progress the strengthening side of the rehab process.

We recommend following this program for at least 8-12 weeks, progressing from 15 reps max to 6 reps max towards the end of the program. You can still continue to run throughout this time, as long as your pain levels don’t exceed a 3/10 and your pain subsides following the run.

The final phase of your journey to full recovery incorporates ballistics and advanced strengthening exercises. Exercises based around advanced sport-specific strengthening and high- speed movements, combined with rapid change of direction drills are essential for getting you back to full fitness and preventing a recurrence of the injury!

Many clients find that seeing one of our Exercise Physiologists or Strength & Conditioning coach is a great way to build strength, ability & confidence for a smooth return to full sporting activity.                         

, , , , , , , ,

No Comments

Why Should We Train Through A Full Range of Motion?

We’re often asked about the benefits of going through a full range of motion with your strength exercises. Here is why we recommend that you do and what it means for your training.

1. You get a more complete stimulus and development across the full length of the muscle. We know that muscle fibres don’t always run the entire muscle length from origin to insertion. We also know through the specificity principle that strength gains are specific to the joint angles that are trained so it is important to cover as much of the movement arc as you can. A full range of motion allows greater activation of as many fibres as possible and better strength and hypertrophy gains.

2. Technique standardisation. When you go through the same, top to bottom range for each and every rep, you can be sure when you are progressing and not simply changing form to accommodate the load.

3. Length and strength in long positions. Research has been piling high with the benefits of loading in long muscle lengths (such as in the bottom position of a squat or stiff-legged deadlift, pull up, or bench press where you feel the greatest stretch). This enables strength gains specifically in those ‘stretch’ positions where typically we are not able to produce as much force. Loading into lengthening (eccentric loading) also allows greater overload as well as flexibility improvements.

4. Less injury risk. There is a greater dispersal of stress across more joint systems and larger excursions of motion mean that less load is needed to provide an overload. This greatly reduces the likelihood of a training-related injury.

There certainly are circumstances were you might consider reducing range, such as:

1. To provide a greater overload in a particular joint position thereby effecting a specific muscle or group of muscles. Less range means more weight can be used so caution is advised here. This is to be used sparingly and mostly for the advanced lifter only.

2. Specific sport application – half squats have been shown to have carry-over to running and sprinting activities.

For the most part, the bulk of your training should emphasise taking the joint through as much pain-free range as is controllable and the muscle through full stretch to full contraction. It might mean you’re using a little less load however the benefits hugely outway the risks:

  1. Reduced risk of injury which can set your training back
  2. More complete development of a muscle and strength in weak positions.
  3. Consistent technique and clairty of progress.

References:

Altering the length-tension relationship with eccentric exercise : implications for performance and injury. h

Full Range of Motion Induces Greater Muscle Damage Than Partial Range of Motion in Elbow Flexion Exercise With Free Weights

Specificity of a limited range of motion variable resistance training

Why do full range of motion exercises not increase strength at all muscle lengths?

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

No Comments

Runner’s Knee – Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome


Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) is a common complaint we see here in the clinic. This usually presents as a gradual onset of pain in the front of the knee which is generally vague and difficult to pinpoint. This knee pain usually progressively worsens over time and can interfere with your daily activities and overall function. There can be a number of contributing factors to PFPS and therefore it needs a thorough examination to identify the important factors for each individual patient. Factors such as load management, range of motion, strength and control of the hip, knee, ankle and foot can all play a part in the development of PFPS. It is important then, that we identify the contributors and target these factors with an individualised rehabilitation program. Let’s take a look at these factors in some more depth:


Load Management: As with many injuries we see here at Central Performance, the main contributing factor tends to be a sudden increase in activity (running or loading) e.g. getting back to running after a break but trying to do the same distances you were running before you stopped. Although PFPS often affects runners, it can also occur from other repetitive activities such as stair climbing, hiking or hill running as well as excessive compressive activities such as squatting and kneeling. Key to the successful rehabilitation of PFPS is to manage your load in an appropriate and graded way.

Knee Strength and Lateral Tightness: Research shows that people suffering from PFPS tend to have a weakness in the quadriceps muscles. We also see that the structures (eg the ITB) on the outside of the knee and hip are tight and this affects the position of the patella, pulling it laterally and causing increased wear and tear on the cartilage of the knee due to this sub-optimal tracking.

Rolling in of the knee (“valgus collapse”) commonly causes Patellofemoral Pain in runners.


Hip Strength and Control : A lack of hip strength or control, particularly in the gluteal (“glutes”) muscles to the side of your hips, can result in a rolling inwards of the knee during single leg activities (e.g. walking, running, steps etc). This inward rolling (“valgus collapse”) also pulls the patella outwards, which causes further wear and tear on the under surface of the patella itself and on the contact points of the femur.


Ankle and Foot Factors: Stiffness or restriction of the ankle can transfer excess load up the leg and place more stress through the knee. Similarly, if there is a lack of strength in the calf complex, then this can result in an increase in load through the knee joint in order to compensate. Foot posture has also been linked to PFPS, with those people having flat or “pronated” feet more likely to present with patellofemoral pain.

As you can see, managing Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome is as complex as it is to spell it! It requires a thorough assessment and an individualised rehabilitation program addressing the factors that are specific to you and your pain experience – there is no “one size fits all” treatment recipe. So if you are experiencing anterior knee pain our talented team of physio’s can help!


, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

No Comments

Recovery (part 3): Stretching

Stretching has been tied to performance since the very beginning and currently, there is some evidence to suggest that there are small recovery benefits to be gained from post-exercise stretching.

For this instalment, we’ll be looking at some of the current evidence on stretching for recovery. Stretching to increase flexibility or as part of a warm-up will be covered in more detail another time.



The most common reasons for post-exercise stretching are to reduce soreness, help recovery and to regain pre-training flexibility, and while stretching is still common practice, much of the initial supporting theory has been debunked. 

Type

There are many types of stretching but the two categories most often subscribed to for recovery are static and dynamic. 

Static:(Self-administered, in place/no movement) 

Passive:(Partner administered) 

Dynamic:Active (movement based) 

Ballistic: Active / fast bouncy actions at end range)


Effects on Muscle Soreness 

A dig through the current literature will show that while there is some research suggesting positive results from post-exercise stretching on muscle soreness, much of it is low quality. While there is also widespread anecdotal observation of reduced muscle soreness with post-exercise stretching, there appears to be very little or no effect on muscle soreness reflected in the current body of evidence.


Blood Flow 

Static stretching appears to temporarily constrict the blood vessels through compression reducing blood flow, oxygenation and red blood cell delivery to the muscle. Shortly after the applied stretch, however, there appears to be a sudden and enhanced surge of blood flow greater than in pre-stretch conditions. This short-lived shunting effect may assist the recovery process through enhanced nutrient delivery and waste removal although this has not been firmly established in the literature.


Enhanced Parasympathetic Activity 

The PSNS is the branch of the Autonomic Nervous System associated with a ”rest and digest” response. Essentially, it slows the system down, reduces neural excitability and helps facilitate the recovery and adaptation process.
Static stretching has been shown to influence PSNS modulation, acutely (same day) and across several weeks after a consistent application over 28 days. This was demonstrated by positive changes to heart rate variability, which in recent times has become a popular metric for measuring ANS status and training readiness. 


Flexibility 

More research in recent times has pointed to static stretching leading to an improved stretch tolerance, rather than increased tissue flexibility. Some research has also suggested that improvements in flexibility may occur due to a temporary decrease in neural excitability or resting tone as a result of static stretching. Some newer evidence suggests that flexibility improvements may also be the result of change to the mechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit through stretching.

In summary: 
. Static stretching has little to no effect on post-exercise muscle soreness

. Following post-exercise static stretching, a ‘shunting’ effect occurs resulting in a temporary increase in blood flow and waste removal.

. Static stretching promotes relaxation by enhancing PSNS activity.

. Static stretching creates short-term improvements in flexibility, and reduced neural drive.

While it appears that there are a few mechanisms through which static stretching can influence recovery, these changes are not meaningful enough to warrant using static stretching as a stand-alone, or primary method of recovery. 

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

No Comments

Effective Exercise Treatment For Hamstring Strains

Strength, Flexibility and Running Are Key Elements of Hamstring Rehab Programs

Hamstring injuries can be tricky, and proper treatment is a definite must before testing them out again on the sporting field. Hamstring injuries are among the most common we see here in the clinic, and we believe in using a holistic treatment approach encompassing several areas to get those dodgy hamstrings healthy again!

 

The three main treatment avenues we use are: Strength, Flexibility and Running.

1. Strength

1 Leg Barbell DeadliftsStrength is a crucial part of keeping hamstrings healthy, and there are a number of exercises we like to use to increase hamstring strength. We use progressive overload in both hip and knee dominant exercises to ensure maximal strength levels are achieved. Some of these exercises include single leg bridges, Nordic curls, prone hamstring curls, single leg deadlifts and hamstring slider curls. Remember to mix up your exercises and give yourself plenty of rest between sessions.

2. Flexibility

Obviously, flexibility is a massive part of healthy hamstrings, however many people don’t release that flexibility of muscles other than the hamstrings also plays an important part of keeping those hamstrings healthy. Therefore it is important that flexibility components of hamstring rehab programs focus on glute, hip flexor, quadriceps and calf range of motion as well as the hamstrings themselves. Poor range or severe tightness in these muscles are an injury risk factor, so this should be a priority for anyone returning to sport from a hamstring injury.

3. Running

Running can be a difficult part of hamstring rehab, as in many cases it was the mechanism of the injury! It is however an extremely useful tool in hamstring rehabilitation, and once you’re over the initial hesitancy is the trick to getting those hamstrings firing again. Changing up the style of running training you do is key. We use a mix of progressive speed exposures, max speed exposures, change of direction and deceleration training, and again suggest varying the type and intensity of running training you complete.

 

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

No Comments

Should You Be Starting A Pre-season training Program?

Pre- Season training: why is it important?

For many people who play winter sports like football, soccer, AFL, netball and hockey, pre-season training is just around the corner or may have even started already. Completing a whole pre-season program is not only vital for fitness levels and skill practice, it can be a massive component of preventing injuries throughout the season!

Pre-season strength trainingA 2016 study found that elite AFL players who completed <50% of their pre season training were 2x more likely to sustain an in- season injury than those who completed >85%. This isn’t just relevant for AFL though; it’s relevant for all sports at any level.

This is a telling stat, and one that needs to be at the front of all athletes’ minds whilst participating in pre-season training. Even if you’re injured, there is something you can do. Pre-season isn’t just about “getting fit again”, it can be used for rehabbing those niggly injuries still hanging around from last season. The is also lots of research showing that increasing strength can help prevent many common sports injuries including hamstring and adductor (groin)  muscle tears, rotator cuff and other shoulder injuries, shin splints and other sprains and strains.  

Research from the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) also shows that avoiding rapid spikes in training load helps you avoid injury not only in pre-season, but during the season as well. Going straight in to in-season training and competition loads causes a huge spike in strain through your body and this dramatically increases your risk of injury during the season.

So make the most of your pre-season training. Get yourself to those sessions, and work on everything you can! Remember, the work you do now will pay off come start of season if you make the effort!

Not sure what to do for your pre-season training? Let one of our Strength & Conditioning coaches  or Exercise Physiologists get you on the right program to boost your performance and reduce your risk of injury

Reference: Murray et.al 2016 Individual and combined effects of acute and chronic running loads on injury risk in elite Australian footballers

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

No Comments

Can Strength Training Help You Run Faster?

Run Faster For Longer With Less Chance Of Injury

The right strength program can improve your performance as well as reduce your risk of injury.

At Central Performance we see a lot of runners coming in either for physio treatment or running training with our running coach/physio superstar Ben Liddy. We know that runners love to run and can be like a bear with a sore head when they can’t run due to injury. One great, and often overlooked, way to both improve running performance as well as reduce the risk of injury is to add some strength training to your running training.

Traditionally it was believed that strength training won’t improve running performance as lifting weights will make people bulky and slow. However there is now good evidence that strength training improves running performance by increasing running efficiency. An increase in running efficiency means you to use less energy while running.

Strength training helps improve running efficiency by increasing the rate of force development (RFD) of a muscle. RFD is how quickly a muscle can produce force. The higher the RFD the quicker a runner is able to spring off the ground, reducing the ground contact time and therefore reducing the amount of energy they use.

What Type Of Strength Training Is Best For Runners?

Training needs to be personalAlso contrary to popular belief, the best form of strength training for runners is not light weights with high reps to build endurance. Research shows that the most effective form of resistance training for runners is heavy weights with low reps and plyometric (power) training. Using heavy weights for low reps helps to increase neural drive to the muscle which helps to improve RFD. Plyometrics also help to improve RFD and power development. Plyometrics involve jumping exercises and help teach the body to use muscles and tendons like springs, reducing ground contact time and thereby improving running efficiency.

The best types of resistance exercises for running are compound exercises such as deadlifts, squats and lunges. These exercises use almost all the lower body muscles in a coordinated fashion. 

Research shows that weight training twice per week causes significant improvements in running efficiency and performance. It has also shown that for competitive runners reducing weight training to once per week during the competitive season maintains the improvements made with twice per week.

Can Strength Training Also Reduce My Injury Risk?

Strength training also helps to reduce the risk of injury to runners and all other athletes. A recent review in the British Journal of Sports Medicine showed that resistance training can lead to a 66% decrease in sports injuries and a 50% decrease in overuse injuries. The below picture does a good job illustrating why strength training is important injury prevention for runners.

As you can see the soleus muscle, one of the muscles in the calf, needs to handle between 6.5-8.0 times bodyweight on ground contact during running. Having to tolerate such huge forces obviously requires a lot of strength otherwise the rsk of injury is greatly increased. A good guide for having adequate strength in the calf muscles is to be able to confidently do 30 single leg heel raises on each leg.

Tendinopathies are a very common type of running injury. They occur when the amount of load going through a tendon overloads the tendon’s ability to recover from it. Commonly occurring tendinopathies for runners are hamstring and achilles tendinopathies as both the hamstrings and calf muscles are extremely important in running. One of the best ways to improve a tendon’s capacity to handle load is by resistance training. Heavy resistance training provides a beneficial stimulus to tendons to help them build strength, remodel and allow them to adapt to high volumes of load put through them during running.


We’ve Got Runners Covered

The Central Performance Running Centre helps runners of all abilities improve their performance and reduce their risk of injury. Our strength coaches and exercise physiologists can get you on a personalised program that is effective, efficient and tailored just right for you. 

You can book online or call us on 9280 2322 for more info. 

This post was written by Hugh Campbell, our senior Exercise Physiologist. He has extensive experience and has attended numerous post-graduate courses on running biomechanics and the role of strength training in runners. 

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

No Comments

Personal Training At Central Performance, Surry Hills

Personal Training at Central Performance

Tailor-made exercise programs delivered by expert trainers to help you achieve your health, fitness and sports performance goals.

If you’re looking for a great personal trainer in Surry Hills then Central Performance has you covered. Many people know us as a physio or rehab-oriented facility, however you should know that a large part of what we do every day is work with healthy individuals, who are completely free from injury, using tailored exercise programs to improve peoples overall health and sports performance.

Here are some key ingredients that set our exercise services apart;

•  it’s all about you. Every exercise program we deliver is specific just for that client and is based on their individual goals, wants, needs, current fitness level and preferences

•  exceptional trainers who really care about you. We really make the time and effort to get to know you, your likes and dislikes, what you want to achieve and what might be holding you back. We make sure your time with us is a real highlight of your day, not just just another exercise session.

•  a warm and friendly environment where you feel you really belong, amongst a group of people who always want the best for you.

•  a dedicated team working hand-in-hand around you to give you everything you need for success. Because our team of trainers and coaches work right alongside our phyiso’s, exercise physiologists and massage therapists, if you do have any injury concerns then help and advice is always on hand.

We work with people at every level of fitness and sports performance, from gym newbies to athletes competing at national and international levels. Whether your goal is weight loss, sports performance, getting your body back to the way you like it, or maybe you just feel sluggish and you know you’ve got to get moving again, we can tailor an exercise program just right for you. Spending too long at the desk and putting on some kilos, or maybe your doctor says you need to get your weight or blood pressure under control with regular exercise? We can help. 


Keen to start training?

Sign up for our 3-for-1 Introduction To Training Package to get 3 sessions for the price of one


 Call us on 280 2322 or click for more information.

 

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

No Comments


Call Now Button